Between the 1st century BC and 7th cen- tury AD a second group of people began migrating from the north. Speakers of Tibeto-Burman languages and known as the Pyu, they established their capital in Prome on the western banks of the Irrawaddy River. Like the Mon, the Pyu were indianized and, in all likelihood, were Buddhist. Being a peace loving society there were no rivalries or conflict be- tween the two kingdoms until the mid 9th century. At that time another Tibeto-Burman speaking people from the north, known as the Burmese moved into the Irrawaddy valley and absorbed the Pyu kingdom.
The Burmese established the capital of their kingdom at Bagan, 400 miles from the mouth of the Irrawaddy. As the power and influence of this kingdom grew, they conquered their neighbours to the south- east, the Mon. It was the Mon craftsman and artisans that would define the Bagan culture. The Bagan dynasty became known for the large number of temples, shrines and monasteries built and maintained during this period. This was the kingdom that united all of present day Myanmar. The Bagans would continue there conquests to include the Shan realm to the east and the Arakan region to the west until they succeeded in uniting all of what is present day Myanmar. This period of peace would last until the 1287 when the Mongols under Kublai Khan defeated the Bagan kingdom. In the ensuing centuries the Mon would re-establish their kingdom in Pegu while the north be- came divided into the various splinter groups.
For two centuries the Burmese, the Shan and the Mon were at war with each other. By the 16th century, a new dynasty emerged from the capital city Toungoo in central Burma. Under its third king Bayinnaung, the Toungoo dynasty would extend as far as Laos when it conquered the LanNa (Chiang Mai) and Ayutthaya kingdoms in Thailand. After his death they lost much of their conquered territory and the capital was moved north to Ava. In 1752 a Mon rebellion succeeded in taking over the capital of Ava. A few short years later the Konbaung dynasty defeated the Mon kingdom for a final time. During this period there was an on going struggle against the British in the west and the Thais at Ayutthaya in the east. The Burmese army completely destroyed the city of Ayutthaya and it was never rebuilt. The defeat of the Arakan kingdom in the west brought it into conflict the British in neighboring Bengal. In the 19th century there were three Anglo-Burmese wars and by 1886 the entire territory of Burma fell under the authority of British colonial India.